AP Human Geography Rubenstien's Ch. The highest mountains in the world are steep, snowy, and sparsely settled. ... Medical revolution. Many plantations farm rubber, pine, spruce, and eucalyptus trees, oil palm, cotton, tea, and tobacco. Demographic Transition- The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population. Medical Revolution. Paris, France) Not every country has a primate city Can have primate cities on large and small scales California’s primate city is Los Angeles America lacks a primate city Rank Size Rule: 2nd largest city is ½ of 1st 3rd largest city is 1/3 of 1st 4th largest city is ¼ of 1st World Cities: Have a large population density because of technology high rise They are cities that have great influence on the whole world They become a world city because they are in the center of the global economic system Highest Tier of World Cities- London, Tokyo, and New York (world’s business capital) 2nd Tier- Chicago, Washington and Los Angeles Megacities: Over 10 million people Experience a sudden rise in population where the infrastructure can’t support the population for a time For the most part Megacities are in LDC’s because the people there are forced to go to urban areas to find work Central Place Theory: Walter Christaller created the central place theory to explain the size and spacing of cities that specialize in selling goods and services The theory consisted of two basic concepts: 1. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and … There were many villages along rivers such as the Great Yellow River (Huang He). Wild wheat and barley grew in abundance and tribes of nomad hunters and herders settled down along the banks of the rivers and became the world's first farmers. Ex: a (CBR) of 20 means that for every 1,000 people in a country, 20 babies are born over a one year period. Cartography: The science of map making Toponym: A name given to a place on earth. Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. SURVEY . Medical Revolution: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. People called refugees are forced to migrate form their countries because of fear of persecution because of their race, nationality, religion, or political opinion. It is believed that many nomadic hunters settled the land. The population increased by about 80 million in 2000 compared to 8 million in 1900. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people t live longer and healthier lives. The Chinese also farmed rice. The sudden population boom was caused by the industrial revolution which began in England in the late 18th century. The aver number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. AP Human Geography Course and Exam Description This is the core document for the course. Y g h £ ¼ ½ õ . Pop & Folk Culture: Popular Culture: Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics Folk Culture: Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups Origin of Folk Cultures: Folk customs often have anonymous hearths, originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators Origin of Pop Cultures: Popular culture is most often a product of the economically more developed countries, especially in North America, Western Europe, and Japan Transition from Folk to Pop Culture: Most of the world turns from folk to pop culture. Almost all dairy products come from a commercial farm. Nile Valley- the Nile Valley civilization developed along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Like language, migrants take their religion with them to new locations, but although migrants typically learn the language of the new location, they retain their religion. Most of humanity’s several-hundred-thousand-year occupancy of Earth was characterized by stage 1 of the demographic transition. h Many African countries didn’t enter stage 2 until the late 1950’s due to the medical revolution. The Von Thunen Model: Agricultural land use 1826 The black dot represents a city 1 (white)- dairy and market gardening 2 (green)- forest for fuel 3 (yellow)- grains and field crops 4 (red)- ranching Dark green=wilderness where agriculture is not profitable Crop Rotation: The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil Slash-and-burn Agriculture: Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris Desertification: Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting 1st Agricultural Revolution: 12,000 yrs ago, Neolithic era Fertile Crescent, China, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America Accompanied by a modest population explosion Domestication- animals (about 40 species today) occurred after people became more sedentary 2nd Agricultural Revolution: 1871-1914 Resulted from the Industrial Revolution- produced new technology that helped with the agricultural progress a lot Ex. Around 5,000 B.C. THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. The annual flooding of the river (which was viewed as a gift from the gods) deposited nutrient rich silt over the land. Term: Medical Revolution Definition: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. However, it is clear that the world's population continues to grow, in other words, more people are being born than people dying. Wet Lands- Wet lands are lands that receive high levels of precipitation. The decrease in death rates in stage 2 is caused by technological advances, while the decrease in births during stage 3 is a result of changes in social customs. The silt made the soil excellent for growing wheat flax and other crops. Demography- The scientific study of population characteristics. These areas became known as ghettos. 2. The natural; increase rate for stage 2 countries was about 1.7 at the time. Most of Ireland is Roman Catholic, but Northern Ireland is 58% Protestant and 42% Roman Catholic. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Around 1750 AD the population began to grow ten times as fast. Natural Increase: Natural- means a country’s growth rate excludes migration. Israelis have no intention of giving up control of the Old City of Jerusalem, and Palestinians have no intention of giving up their claim to it. Metal and coal deposits might attract miners. Israel/Palestine: After the 1973 war, the Palestinians emerged as Israel’s principle opponent. This was the first time humans domesticated plants and animals. (States people can overcome the physical problems/features – humans conquer land instead of land conquering humans). International Migration- Some Jewish people were able to escape the Nazis by migrating to the different countries away from them. total fertility rate. Medical revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. 25. Life style changes also tend to lead to smaller families in stage 4, and people with more birth control options tend to use them more in stage 4 countries. The number of people added each year has dropped slower than the NIR because the population base is much higher now than in the past. On a scattergram, each country in table 5 would be shown as a point located from the horizontal (GNP) and vertical (growth rate) axes. Dependency Ratio- The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force. 13. Once a country has entered a stage, it cannot go back down to a previous stage. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. (The reason two things are placed where they are – if they’re related they will probably be close) Spatial Distribution: The arrangement of phenomenon across the Earth’s surface Environmental Determinism: A nineteenth- and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality. A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Natural increase rate (NIR)- the percentage by which a population grows in a year. With the flooding of rivers irrigation was an important thing to master. Life expectancy- the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels. The modern movement to divide the world into states originated in Europe. Human-Environmental Interaction: Humans adapt to the environment Humans modify the environment Humans depend on the environment 4. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the … Divided into two types- Interregional migration- movement from one region of a country to another. Brain Drain: Large-scale emigration by talented people International & Internal Migration: International Migration- The permanent movement from one country to another. AP Human Geography Chapter 2, Key Issue 3 questionStage 1 answerPre-Industrial; Low Growth (Hunting/Gathering) questionStage 1's CBR, CDR, NIR answerCBR & CDR are very high, NIR is low ... AP Human Geography Unit 2 review. Sharecropper: A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops Ghettos: When the African American immigrants reached the big cities, they clustered in the one or two neighborhoods where the small numbers who had arrived in the 19th century were already living. ‹ The US evacuated from Saigon several thousand people who had been closely identified with the American position during the war and who were therefore vulnerable to persecution after the Communist victory. Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. Environmental Push and Pull Factors: Pull- people are attracted to areas with warm climates, mountainsides, and seasides. = > | Š ‹ ' ( U W z Š ‹ î ÷ ø j u v œ § ¨ Ñ × Ø d p q ´ À Á İ è óëáÖÊ¼´Ö´Ö´Ö´Ö´ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«Ö´ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ h•- 5�CJ aJ h•- CJ aJ hh h•- 5�>*CJ aJ hh h•- 5�CJ aJ hh h•- CJ aJ hh h•- 5�>* hh h•- 5�hh h•- 5�CJ aJ C - O P • – ñ ò < = Y Z t � ” § ± È â Q. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Vietnam: The long Vietnam War ended in 1975 when Communist-controlled North Vietnam captured South Vietnam’s capital city of Saigon. 210270873 These areas cover about 20% of the earth’s land surface. by ally_pagans, Oct. 2013. Nearly all the world's population growth is clustered in what areas? The white-dominated government of South Africa repealed the apartheid laws in 1991. Arithmetic – the total number of objects in an area Physiological – the number of persons per unit area of suitable agricultural land Agricultural – number of farmers per area of farmland Concentration: The spread of something over a given area Clustered – close together Dispersed – far apart Pattern: The arrangement of objects in space Culture: Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a group of people in tradition Hearth: Where an idea originates Acculturation: The spread of cultural traits from one society to another Diffusion: The spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another. Example- influenza (flu). 10/03/2010. DRAFT. AIDS is an example of relocation diffusion. Language Group: A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary Dialect: A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation Old English Speakers: West Germanic invaders from Jutland (Denmark) known as the Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes began populating the British Isles in the 5th and 6th centuries AD Pushed the native Celtic speaking people into Scotland, Whales, and Ireland Creolized Language: A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated French Creole in Haiti Papiamento (Creolized Spanish) in Netherlands Antilles (West Indies) Portuguese Creole in the Cape Verde Islands off the African Coast Indo-European Language Family: The world’s most extensively spoken language family by a wide margin Nearly 3 billion people speak an Indo-European language as their first language Eight Branches: Indo-Iranian Romance Germanic Balto-Slavic Albanian Armenian Greek Celtic 10 most Spoken Languages in the World: Position LanguageFamilyScript UsedSpeakers (Millions)Where Spoken (Major)1MandarinSino-TibetanChinese Characters885China, Malaysia, Taiwan2EnglishIndo-EuropeanLatin332USA, UK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand3SpanishIndo-EuropeanLatin322South America, Central America, Spain4ArabicAfro-AsiaticArabic235ME, Arabia, North Africa5BengaliIndo-EuropeanBengali189Bangladesh, Eastern India6HindiIndo-EuropeanDevanagari182North and Central India7PortugueseIndo-EuropeanLatin170Brazil, Portugal, Southern Africa8RussianIndo-EuropeanCyrillic170Russia, Central Asia9JapaneseAltaicChinese Characters and 2 Japanese Alphabets125Japan10GermanIndo-EuropeanLatin98Germany, Austria, Central Europe Ideograms: The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English Religion: Religion, Culture, and Physical Environment People care deeply about their religion and draw from religion their core values and beliefs, an essential element of the definition of culture. the most rapid growth is occurring in the less developed countries. A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. Shifting Cultivation: A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period Cultivation where tropical forests are removed by cutting and burning, ash contributes to soil fertility Clearings are usually abandoned after a few years for newly cleared land (150-200 million people) Intensive Subsistence Agriculture: A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land Pastoral Nomadism: A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals They live in dry climates Ranching: A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area Semi-arid or arid land MDC’s Transhumance: The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures Commercial Farming: Aka agribusiness- a system of economic and political relationships that organize food production from the development of the genetic makeup of the seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product- not just farming also development, harvesting, canning, and selling of crops- is an example of a company that incorporates primary, secondary, and tertiary job sectors Mass profit, almost all diary products are from commercial farming Ex. 300. Hierarchical Diffusion – The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other people or places. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. AP Human Geography- Chapter 2 Review (Population) ... Industrial Revolution. European Union: A cooperation under the economic category Promotes development through economic cooperation (free trade, Euro, subsidizing) Sovereignty: Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states Development: Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year) Gross National Product (GNP): Similar to GDP, except that it includes income that people earn abroad, such as a Canadian working in the United States Human Development Index (HDI): Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy Job Types (Sectors): Primary- extracting from Earth (agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry) Secondary- manufacturing raw materials- taking something from the land and making it a product Tertiary- Services, Banking, Retailing, Education Rostow’s Stages of Development Model: Rostow, in the 1950’s, made a 5 stage model of the international trade development approach. sudden injection of medical technology from developed nations. ... Medical Revolution: Definition. Involves growing numbers. In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa. Medical Revolution – Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, Latin America, Asia, and Africa. River plains and delta regions helped the process of agriculture and trade. Industrial Revolution- A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Universalizing Religion: A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location 3 Big – Christianity, Islam, Buddhism Christianity: Origin – Israel 2 billion adherents Known as Christians Mainly in Western Hemisphere and Europe Foundation based on the Ten Commandments Major branches- Catholics (50%). AP Human Geography- Unit 2: Population and Migration. Census- A complete enumeration of a population. 9. AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Vocabulary. Seen here... is a population pyramid of Scotland, which is in this stage of the demographic transition model. ... and medical conditions. The guest workers are not always excepted and can be treated unfairly. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. – ¦ h5 Ğ6 „ �9 0 ±9 ~5 6 [> < [> , ´6 < + ´6 ¶ ¶ ¶ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ j ‡ ñ : AP Human Geography Notes General Geography: US road map is not a thematic map Every meridian is the same length and has the same beginning and end According to environmental determinism, the physical environment causes social development Highest density: most in numbers Highest concentration: closest together Cloropleth map uses shading Five Themes of Geography: 1. Life expectancy measures the number of years a newborn will be expected to live. Ungraded . Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Ethiopia (horn of Africa)- Before embracing full scale farming Ethiopians were mainly hunters and gatherers. Medical Revolution- Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Deserts lack sufficient water to grow crops to feed many people. Define medical revolution. The first states to evolve in Mesopotamia were known as city-states – sovereign states that comprise a town and the surrounding countryside. The traditional society: the country has not yet started process of development The preconditions for takeoff: the country initiates innovative economic activities The takeoff: there is rapid growth in economic activities The drive to maturity: modern technology diffuses The age of mass consumption: the economy shifts to consumer goods The model assumes that LDCs will achieve development by moving to a higher stage in the model. Description. The medical revolution has been characterized by. GEOGRAPHY MODELS Preparing for the AP Human Geography Exam. Geography. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Scientists use the more accurate term TFR or Total Fertility Rate. Stage 5: Currently no Stage 5 Experts suggesting that there will be in the near future Characterized by a negative population growth This will first occur in Western Europe and make its way through most MDCs. The current estimated world human population is 6,379,157,361. Usually promises a better situation than the present one. &. a medical revolution. One degree longitude is 69 miles, so there is a new time zone every 1,035 miles. Countries elsewhere didn’t enter stage 2 till much later. The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. In stage 4 the growth is minimal. 2.3k plays . Subsistence Agriculture: Self-sufficient, small in scale, low technology, Food production for local consumption- not for trade or sale Some are confined to small fields- very likely they do not own the soil they till Small fields-share cropper, low end money pull for agriculture Can promote cohesiveness within society, share land, food surpluses, personal wealth is restricted Cultivators are poor but free Subsistence farming is growing enough food for one person and their family. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Does not have to grow in numbers. This is known as ZPG or Zero Population Growth. Latin American and Asian countries have entered rather recently, while most African countries still have not entered stage 3. The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force. This caused a jump in the worlds' population in the late 1700's and helped send England into stage 2 of the Industrial Revolution: ... the Industrial Revolution. ...
the Medical Revolution
the Scientific RevolutionTags: Question 11 . ß Rust Belt and Sun Belt Intraregional migration- movement within on region International Migration: Divided into two types- Voluntary migration- implies that migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements. k Lester Brown a Stanford University biologist, said Malthus made critical points but missed a couple important points, gains in land productivity, and the preference for eating “higher up the food chain”. Economic Push and Pull Factors: Pull- People emigrate to places with better job opportunities. 30 seconds . diffusion of medical practices. ecumene: A portion of the Earth occupied by permanent human settlement: Industrial Revolution The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. ' Save. It clearly lays out the course content and describes the exam and AP Program in general. The natural increase rate rose from 0.05 to 0.5 Some demographers divide stage 2 of the demographic transition into 2 parts. changes in their economic and social systems the Industrial Revolution. Servia Boznia Balkan Peninsula Political Geography: Colonies, Early European States, and Ancient and Medieval States: A colony is a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. OVERPOPULATION . Total fertility rate- The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Whereas cultural factors usually compel forced migration Net Migration: The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. People are attracted to democratic countries that encourage individual choice in education, career, and a place of residence. They also raised domestic dogs, pigs, and chickens. t Ecumene- The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is the scientific study of characteristics of population, The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support, A portion of earth's surface occupied permanently by human settlement., This English economist that argued that population will increase geometrically rather than arithmetically. During stage 3 it begins to slow down, though advances continue. A combination of rain and heat depletes nutrients from the soil which prevents growing crops. Vocabulary. Total Fertility Rate- The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. Natural increase is more moderate than stage 2 as well. This probably began so they would have food to rely on if hunting became bad or in the event of a drought. Natural Increase Rate- The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. Mesoamerica eventually went into a subsistence pattern based on the cultivation of plants. The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Movement People Goods Ideas 5. Its long narrow floodplain provided ideal conditions for settlement and development of stable communities. Population pyramids can be used to demonstrate the demographics of a certain area, and can be used as an indication of the development of a certain area The Demographic Transition: There are four stages to the demographic transition: Stage 1-: Low Growth Stage 2: High Growth Stage 3: Moderate Growth Stage 4: Low Growth All countries are in one stage or another of the demographic transition. Several medical advances were made during this time as well. Example- grunge music. Distribution: The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface Density: The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. Crude Death Rate- The total number of deaths in a year fro every 1,000 people alive in the society. Click to Rate "Hated It" Click to Rate "Didn't Like It" ... Medical Revolution . These farms are for profit. Lots of subsistence farms grow things like tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cucumbers, and spinach. Here the primary factor is women who enter the labor force. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North america that is diffused to the poorer countries (LDCs) improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled people to live longer and healthier lives Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in a population ... Late 20th century push of countries into stage 2 caused by new medical technology: Options. If you go east you go forwards in time. These areas are unfavorable for human life. Mortality: Two useful measures of mortality in addition to the crude death rate already discussed are the infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The number of males per 100 females in a population. Sex Ratio- The number of males per 100 females in the population. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. New machines helped farmers increase agricultural production. k9 < < < ¾ Ø + G + G T9 < ¶ T9 < < â Ä4 ¤ + + ´6 @uHH*ÀÍ ? 71% average accuracy. Mayfield These farms are made for mass profit. A good example is Roman Catholicism (Pope, Cardinals, Bishops). SURVEY . Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and … South Asia: Another one fifth of the world’s population lives in south Asia. They grow the worlds largest crops like wheat, rice , corn, and pretty much everything you find in Kroger. Total Cards. International Date Line: An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. Neo-Malthusians: Study Malthus’ theory They point out that the amount of farmland is decreasing while the population is increasing. Internal Migration- Moving to Arkansas from Michigan, or from Georgia to California. A brand new industry or store could attract technicians, scientists, engineers, or other workers. 14 . Popular culture diffuses rapidly across Earth to locations with a variety of physical conditions. To compute you subtract CBR from CDR. They hunted deer and other game, fished, and gathered food. the Scientific Revolution. The plants they grew were more reliable. South Africa Apartheid: Apartheid is the physical separation of different races into different areas. SURVEY . Self Sufficiency: The more popular development alternative for LDCs for most of the 20th century Incomes in the countryside keep up with those in the city Reducing poverty is more important than creating wealthy consumers Fragile businesses can be independent and protected from businesses and governments in MDCs Set barriers limiting goods being imported International Trade: A country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of its distinctive local industries Transnational Corporation: A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located Centripetal Force: An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state Centrifugal Force: An attitude that tends to break or make people fall apart- fight Agriculture: Agriculture=farming+livestock Before 12,000 BC- hunting and gathering- no agriculture Agricultural Hearths: Fertile Crescent- historical region watered by the Nile, Jordan, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers. These polar regions are unsuitable for crops and animals. Zero Population Growth- A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. East Asia includes: eastern China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Taiwan. To study fertility, geographers most frequently use the. Distinguishing Between Economic Migrants and Refugees Very difficult to distinguish between those seeking economic opportunities and refugees fleeing from persecution etc. It is here that agricultural is thought to be first developed. Around 5500BC hunting was mostly replaced by domesticating animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, as well as growing cereal grains. Political unity in the ancient world reached its height with the establishment of the Roman Empire, which controlled most of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. Fertility: TFR total fertility rate- the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49). Push- certain physical conditions cause people to move to different areas like too much or too little water in an area can force people to move. Due to discrepancies, ZPG is not always accurate. Play this game to review Other. Examples- Apple computers/Martin Luther King Jr. (he is dead but his thought process still lives on). Density does not tell you where something is, just strictly numbers Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area Physiological Density: The total number of people divided by all arable land (farmland) Agricultural Density: The total number of farmers (and family) divided by all arable land Concentration: The spread of something over a given area; Concentration tells you where something is; Can be clustered or dispersed Pattern: The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area Diffusion: The spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another over time Relocation Diffusion: The spread of a feature or trend through physical movement of people from one place to another. The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. Expansion – Spreading in a snowballing process Contagious– rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population – example - influenza Hierarchical- The spread from authority or power to other people – example – political leaders or hip hop music Stimulus– the spread of an underlying principal though the characteristic itself might diffuse – example – principals from Apple computer though the company diffused. There is a new time zone ever 15 degrees longitude. It is difficult to meet all the requirements to be able to travel in any way to a new country. The islands are: Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Borneo), Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. European Guest Workers In Europe, these workers are protected by Minimum Wage laws and union contracts About 700,000 of these workers enter Europe legally 500,000 workers enter illegally The United Kingdom restricts the ability for foreigners to get work permits. The industrial revolution brought about rapid improvements in industrial technology. The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society. Southeast Asia: The world’s third largest population cluster is in southeast Asia. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day. 9th - 11th grade. 5678 times. Global Warming could interfere with food production. ‘White Flight” is when whites left their homes to where they knew would be a dominate white area because they were scared of the blacks. tractor, cotton gin 3rd Agricultural Revolution: Aka Green Revolution- benefiting LDC’s by introduction and production of fertilizers and pesticides into LDC’s 1960 to present Based on higher yielding strains using genetic engineering Double Cropping: Harvesting twice a year from the same field Industry: The Industrial Revolution: Started in the north of the UK around 1750 A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods Transformed how goods are produced for society and the way people obtain food, clothing, and shelter World’s Largest Industrial Production Regions: Approximately ¾ of the world’s industrial production is concentrated in four regions: eastern North America, northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, and East Asia. The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. The population is bigger than the amount of arable land-which causes more than half of the children to be under-nourished or mal-nourished. Industries in US: New England, Middle Atlantic, Mohawk Valley, Pittsburgh-Lake Erie, Western Great Lakes Bulk-Reducing Industry: An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs Example- Copper concentration (pennies) Bulk-Gaining Industry: An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs Example- Soft-drink bottling Break-of-Bulk Point: A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another Urban: Filtering – Urban Decay – Inner-City Decay: The slow digression of a city, usually occupied by low-income people The peripheral model helped to promote this because of the middle-class people moving to the outskirts Redlining: Banks purposely not giving loans to a certain low-income area of a city Illegal, but still happens because it’s hard to prove Urban Renewal: Done by the government To attract businesses To clean up the city and help their reputations Public Housing: Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes Gentrification: Done privately The process of high income people going to low income places and kicking the people out Usually areas where houses are worn down, looks very trashy The high income people build houses in edgy areas because they want to cut down on their commute Annexation: Official adding of land Can be on national scale or state scale Peripheral Model: Latest version- most up to date Developed in the 1990s (other three developed in early 1900s – outdated) Has to contain a beltway/ring way/ring road A ring road is a road that surrounds the core of the city The purpose is to take this road without going through the city The core of the city – major part – is in the ring road Must contain an edge city Promotes greenbelts Sprawl: The adding of land- not necessarily official Adding/spreading to the metropolitan area (the city and surrounding areas) Taking up arable land Spreads outwards Promotes greenbelts Greenbelts: Designated areas not allowed to be touched by development (parks, nature trails) Sections of land that are designated natural areas- they cannot be built upon Smart Growth: Instead of building outwards they build upwards to save land Increases population density Saves natural areas Central Business District (CBD): Where all big businesses take place in a city Node Nuclei Edge City: Little mini cities on the outskirts that are like the big cities Lots of edge cities in Atlanta Ex. Some subsistence farms also have livestock. Roswell and Alpharetta – has most of the services as in big cities A.K.A. There wasn’t as much medicine to cure diseases. Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population. Nearly all are islands in the Pacific Ocean or Caribbean Sea State Shapes: Compact State- a state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly Fragmented State- a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory Elongated State- a state with a long, narrow shape Prorupted State- an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension Perforated State- a state that completely surrounds another one Boundaries: Can see on a map: Physical- natural boundaries (oceans, rivers, mountains) Geometric- main official lines Can’t see on a map: Culture Religious Language Federal State: An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government (have a say so) Centripetal forces Example- US Unitary State: An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials (not necessarily bad, but no say so- only government) Centrifugal forces Example- UK United Nations: A cooperation under the political category; Deals with military, economic, agricultural, etc.
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