The range of this native tree in North America is the East and Midwest. It is a beneficial species for attracting pollinators as well. It consists of long interwoven fibres that form an interlocking weave. However, the tree was a major source of fiber for the Indians and that’s where the common name, Basswood, comes from. Bark. The wood is considered odorless. American basswood Family: Tiliaceae: tree: leaf: leaf and fruit: bud: bark : The leaves of Tilia americana are simple, alternate and toothed. Phonetic Spelling TIL-ee-uh a-mer-ih-KAY-nah het-er-oh-FIL-uh Description. Monumental Trees lists the tallest American Linden in Europe at 101 feet and the oldest specimen in the Netherlands as about 138 years old. The Iroquois carved the bark for ceremonial masks. All juvenile basswoods coppice extremely readily, and even old trees will often sprout from the stump if cut. The American Linden (Tilia americana) pictured in this blog is B98, which is across from the trolley station on S. Roosevelt Ave. Scientific Name: Tilia americana , The foliage and flowers are both edible, though the tender young leaves are more palatable.  It is argued that its mechanism of action is due to the flavonoid quercetin, as it inhibits the release of histamine. Bean noted that occasionally, enormous leaves measuring 38 cm or 15 in long by 25 cm or 10 in wide appear on thick, succulent shoots. Its other common name is American Linden. Other sources have suggested the species can live for a thousand years! It has a density of 0.4525 (relative to water). In form, Basswood is like an oversized European linden (Tilia cordata), featuring similar outline, leaf shape and blooms. Wood white or pale brown, soft, tough, close grained, free of knots; hard to split.  It is cultivated at least as far north as Juneau, Alaska. Finding the 220+ Tagged Trees in Fort Collins' City Park Arboretum. Unlike many medicinal uses of plants, linden tea has had a number of scientific studies conducted and papers written. Image cropped. Propagated plants grow rapidly in a rich soil, but are susceptible to many pests. Rabbits and voles eat the bark, sometimes girdling young trees. The wood is soft and has a fine grain, making it a popular choice for wood carving. In a short article discussing this “chocolate” the author says it is still possible to make some for immediate consumption or to freeze and includes a recipe. The roots are spreading, deep and large. The bark is eaten by porcupines and squirrels, the latter sometimes stripping the stringy bark for nest construction. The height of American basswood is 18 to 37 meters. This makes it valuable in the manufacture of wooden-ware, cheap furniture, and bodies of carriages; it is also especially adapted for wood-carving. This tree resides in the United Kingdom. Latin: Tilia americana. Monumental Trees lists the tallest Tilia Cordata at 132.87 feet. The very fragrant blossoms come with a single bract and hang down like lacy umbrellas. The first part of this page consists of a number of photographs to aid in identification of Basswood. Colorado’s champion can be found in Denver at 89 feet, with the second place tree, 72′, found in Fort Collins. The color of the bark of American basswood is a gray to light brown. Also helpful in identification when they aren’t blooming are the heart-shaped, but saw-tooth-edged leaves. Life expectancy is around 200 years, with flowering and seeding generally occurring between 15 and 100 years, though occasionally seed production may start as early as 8 years. Other common names: American linden, basswood, American Basswood. American Basswood, also known as American Linden, (Tilia americana) has plump, oval, asymmetrical reddish or green buds, which bear only one or two bud scales. heterophylla), basswood. For countless centuries, materials gathered from basswood … Deer browse heavily on young shoots, leaves and winter twigs.  The mushroom Pholiota squarrosoides is known to decay the logs of the tree.. The flowers also give off a fragrance that can be discerned from a distance. The crown is domed, the branches spreading, often pendulous. The Iroquois carved the bark for ceremonial masks. Uses. They are basically heart-shaped and the lobes at the base are usually unequal. The seeds are eaten by chipmunks, mice, and squirrels. Usually made from the European species, Tilia Cordata, linden tea is a well known use of the trees’ flowers, leaves, and bark. The straight trunk and bark also help identify the genus. American Basswood Fruits. Bark from dead Basswood limbs provides the best material. Linden tea has a pleasing taste, due to the aromatic volatile oil found in the flowers. Herb: American Basswood Latin name: Tilia americana Family: Tiliaceae (Linden Family) Medicinal use of American Basswood: A tea made from the inner bark is applied to burns - it soothes and softens the skin. The American basswood is known for being one of the most difficult native North American trees to propagate from seed, as they not only have a low viability rate (approximately 30% of all seeds are viable), but quickly develop an extremely hard seed coating that may delay germination for up to two years. The inner bark is very tough and fibrous, used in the past for making ropes.. americana. In France the leaves were made into a tea (tilleul) and used as a mild sedative. Leaf drop in fall occurs between early and late October depending on the latitude. Active ingredients in the linden flowers include flavonoids (which act as antioxidants), volatile oils, and mucilaginous constituents (which soothe and reduce inflammation).  It is sold generally under the name basswood, but is sometimes confounded with tulip-wood and then called white-wood, and is largely used in the manufacture of wooden-ware, wagon boxes and furniture. Indeed, modern foragers may actually consume more of the tree than the Natives did. Linn, American linden, white basswood (var. Basswood is used by skilled artisans and craftsmen alike to create many unique and lovely objects. Its big heart-shaped overlapping leaves, with an interesting palmate vein design, are as big as grape leaves. The wood of the tree, being lightweight and fast-burning, may not be the best choice for heating. Beautiful and sturdy, its heart-shaped green leaves and pale yellow fragrant flowers in June make it especially attractive. Pioneers dubbed it "bastwood" leading to its common name of today. Smooth on upper parts of tree; dark grey, furrowed into narrow scaly ridges; Fibrous inner bark; Distribution & Uses. In addition to being a majestic tree in the landscape, basswood is a soft, light wood and prized for hand carvings and making baskets. The buds are plump, although acute at … Bark, silhouettes and buds are the three keys to identifying trees in winter. The bud that… The wood of the tree, being lightweight and fast-burning, may not be the best choice for heating. Image cropped. The flowers are fragrant and insect-pollinated. American Basswood Bark: "American Linden bark detail" by MONGO, licensed under the public domain. At one time basswood was the prime material for prosthetic limbs. The fruit is a small, globose, downy, hard and dry cream-colored nutlet with a diameter of 8–10 mm (5⁄16–13⁄32 in).. To find the trees in City Park, follow your nose! The American basswood (Tilia americana) is the only member of the genus Tilia native to Iowa. Basswood bark makes excellent strong cordage. It bears unique flowers and large, heart-shaped leaves. In England, its European relative (Tilia cordata) is known as a Lime tree or little leaf linden. Basswood attracts many insect pests including Japanese beetles and skeletonized leaves are common. The American basswood is a medium to large tree that usually grows up to 35 meters tall. The American basswood can be propagated by cuttings and grafting as well as by seed. Trees can provide a survivor with elements from all four core survival priorities: Shelter, Water, Fire and Food. It is native to North America and a common southern Ontario tree, ranging into central Ontario as far north as Lake Nipissing and Sault Ste. Height 60' to 80', diameter 12" to 36"; trunk often continues straight into top of dense rounded crown. Tilia americana is the northernmost basswood species. Mature Height: This is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 60 to 120 ft (exceptionally 129 ft) with a trunk diameter of 3–4 ft at maturity. Description. Native. Its flowers provide abundant nectar for insects. It grows faster than many North American hardwoods, often twice the annual growth rate of American beech and many birch species. The Basswood exhibits an oval to round shape with smooth gray to brown bark when young. American Basswood, also known as American Linden, is a species native to Michigan. American basswood is a deciduous tree. The tree was introduced to the UK in 1752, but has never prospered there, being prone to dieback. American Linden or Basswood Tree American Linden, Basswood (Tilia Americana, Linn. If planting them, it is recommended to gather the seeds in early autumn and sow them before they dry out and form a coating. Along with benefits, most of these articles mention a few drawbacks, such as possible heart problems and drowsiness. Most sources state our native tree grows to a height of around 70′. “Bass” is a corruption of “bast” which is a type of fiber. The leaves emerge in mid-spring, but the flowers require day lengths of approximately 14 hours and 30 minutes to form, hence T. americana's range is limited to north of the 35th parallel. The dried flowers are mildly sweet and sticky, and the fruit is somewhat sweet and mucilaginous. These three trees almost form the points of an equilateral triangle. Cultivars include 'Nova', 'Duros' (with an upright crown), the pyramidal 'Frontyard' and the conic-crowned 'Redmond'. It is a common wood for use in the production of solid-body electric guitars, where it is considered an analogue for aspen and poplar, because it is light, strong and resonant, though it is usually used for guitars that will be painted an opaque color, because its lack of notable grain makes it an unattractive candidate for transparent finish. The American basswood is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 18 to 37 m (60 to 120 ft) exceptionally 39 m (128 ft) with a trunk diameter of 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) at maturity. It peels readily from the tree and is easy to work with. The tree is stately as … Zones: 3-9. on Tea and Chocolate–Products of the Linden? At one time basswood was the prime material for prosthetic limbs. Ethnobotanic: Native Americans and settlers used the fibrous inner bark ("bast") as a source of fiber for rope, mats, fish nets, and baskets. The best dead limbs are ones that have been dead for a week or two. …..Reader’s Digest North American Wildlife c. 1982. Life expectancy is around 200 years, with flowering and seeding generally occurring between 15 and 100 years, though occasionally seed production may start as early as 8 years. Bees produce excellent honey with a mildly spicy flavor from its blossoms. American Basswood is only occasionally planted as a landscape tree. It is the sole representative of its genus in the Western Hemisphere, assuming T. caroliniana is treated as a subspecies or local ecotype of T. By far the easiest way to find linden trees is during and immediately after they bloom as the clusters of flowers (cymes) give the whole tree a distinctive look, as if the undersides of the leaves have been painted a lighter color. The flowers were added to baths to quell hysteria, and steeped as a tea to relieve anxiety-related indigestion, irregular heartbeat, and vomiting. Basswood twigs grow in a zig-zag pattern and can be green, red, or brown in color. The fall color is yellow-green to yellow. Both the twigs and leaves contain mucilaginous sap. It is often planted on the windward side of an orchard as a protection to young and delicate trees. American Basswood bark is thin, smooth, dark gray on young stems. Trees provide an immeasurable number of materials essential to survival, and studying the different species, as well as … According to the Kentucky Department of Horticulture, the American Linden was first cultivated in 1752. Bark brown, deeply furrowed, scaly; inner layer tough; branches grey, twigs reddish. A Basswood can grow 65 to 120 feet tall and is indigenous to the Midwest and Northeastern United States with the highest quality Basswood coming from Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin. In the US the American linden (Tilia americana) is also know as American basswood or just basswood. Mite galls commonly form on the foliage. The wood is used for lightweight projects such as guitars and other instruments, carvings, yardsticks, and veneer. The American basswood is recommended as an ornamental tree when the mass of foliage or a deep shade is desired; no native tree surpasses it in this respect. It is low in strength and has a poor steam-bending classification. The tree will often support several trunks off its base, will prolifically sprout from stumps, and is a great seeder. There is a tie for the largest American Linden in Colorado, with one tree in Fort Collins and the other in Denver. Prefers moist, fertile soils in valleys and uplands; sometimes in hardwood forests The leaves serve as food for caterpillars of various Lepidoptera (see Lepidoptera which feed on Tilia). The flowers of the tree especially have many uses. They are perfect, regular, with five sepals and petals, numerous stamens, and a five-celled superior ovary. It also has minor occurrence in many other forest cover types. The roots are large, deep, and spreading. Unfortunately this concoction did not keep well and production ceased. , Linden flowers are used in colds, cough, fever, infections, inflammation, high blood pressure, headache (particularly migraine), as a diuretic (increases urine production), antispasmodic (reduces smooth muscle spasm along the digestive tract), and sedative. An usual product first made in the 19th century from the dried flowers and nutlets. During the autumn its heart-shaped leaves turn a similar dazzling yellow to its flowers. Native American Uses of Basswood Basswood Outer Bark Basswood Inner Bark The basswood trees growing along our trails and in our forest today are the direct descendents of trees that grew on this land long before European settlers arrived. According to the Kentucky Department of Horticulture, the American Linden was first cultivated in 1752. Overall, seeds are not a major part of the tree's reproductive strategy and it instead mostly spreads by self-coppicing. Its heart-shaped leaves and fragrant flowers in June make it especially attractive for people, while songbirds and blue jays are attracted to its seeds and use the tree for shelter. This will then allow germination to occur immediately. It is an important timber tree in the Great Lakes states. It is the fourth stem in from the northwest corner of Roosevelt and City Park Drive, two down from the light post and near the little kids’ playground. The second part of this page shows the cordage aspect of Bassswood.  They open from the bud conduplicate, pale green, downy; when full grown are dark green, smooth, shining above, paler beneath, with tufts of rusty brown hairs in the axils of the primary veins; the small stipules fall soon after leaf opening. The American linden or basswood is one of North America’s edible trees with droopy yellow flowers that bloom in June and characterize its beautiful appearance. It’s crazy to think that one can use a tree to start a fire, take shelter under it, and then find themselves able to eat and drink from it. The wood is used for liver and gallbladder disorders and cellulitis (inflammation of the skin and surrounding soft tissue). The flowers, leaves, wood, and charcoal (obtained from the wood) are used for medicinal purposes. There is another American Linden on the tree map at B101, which is located on north side of City Park Drive between fields 1 and 2. Tilia cordata, or the Little Leaf Linden (A 88), is also on the north side City Park Drive. Where It Grows: American basswood is a popular urban tree and is plants in wide boulevards and parks in city landscapes. The wood burned to charcoal is ingested to treat intestinal disorders and used topically to treat edema or infection, such as cellulitis or ulcers of the lower leg. Form. was a chocolate-like substance. For other uses, see, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T61788230A61788232.en, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), "Managing the Japanese Beetle:A Homeowner's Handbook", "First record of the rare species Pholiota squarrosoides (Agaricales, Strophariaceae) in southwestern Poland", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tilia_americana&oldid=991874573, Flora of the Great Lakes region (North America), Natural history of the Great Smoky Mountains, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 07:09. The buds, like the twigs, can be green or red. The twigs are smooth, reddish-green, becoming light gray in their second year, finally dark brown or brownish gray, marked with dark wart-like excrescences. It is especially popular in heavy metal. Many benefits, such as relieving hypertension, stomach issues, and pain, helping you sleep, and a reduction of inflammation are reported in alternative medicine articles. Another common name for Basswood is American Linden, as the tree is in the Tilia genus. American basswood is dominant in the sugar maple–basswood forest association, which is most common in western Wisconsin and central Minnesota, but occurs as far east as New England and southern Quebec in places that have mesic soil with relatively high pH. , The wood is pale brown, sometimes nearly white or faintly tinged with red; light, soft with fine close grain; clear of knots but does not split easily. Honey from linden flowers is said to be some of the lightest and best available. Time of flowering varies by several weeks depending on the latitude; early May in Canada and early June in the extreme southern extent. Basswood, of the Linden family and also called linden, is a stately American forest tree with a high dense canopy and lower limbs that can droop to the ground. Honey from linden flowers is said to be some of the lightest and best available. The ribbed cocoon maker species Bucculatrix improvisa has not been found on other plants. Buds of different tree species are so distinctive they are an excellent identification tool. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, ovate to cordate, asymmetrical, unequal at the base (the side nearest the branch the largest), 10–15 cm (4–6 in) (can grow up to 25 cm or 10 in) long and broad, with a long, slender petiole, a coarsely serrated margin and an acuminate apex.
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